Janet Marshall is the editor of The Free Lance-Star's Healthy Living section and Healthy Life Virginia newsletter. She thinks most things are fine in moderation.
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Stay safe in scorching heat
WEATHER: Check the latest forecast.
I don’t remember worrying about the heat when I was a kid. But I do remember feeling an odd combination of sweaty and chilled a few times after running around sports fields on hot, humid days. Chills, I now know, can be a sign of heat exhaustion.
During heat waves like the one we’re experiencing now, kids and grownups need to be vigilant about keeping cool, staying hydrated and not ignoring signs that the heat is making them sick. Here’s a primer on heat sicknesses:
There are three kinds of illness caused by heat, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The mildest form is heat cramps, followed by heat exhaustion and then heat stroke, which is potentially life-threatening.
Heat cramps are what you think: Muscle cramps caused by the heat. Along with cramps, symptoms include heavy sweating, fatigue and thirst. At this stage, you should stop what you’re doing, move to a cooler spot and drink lots of cold fluids. Sports drinks are helpful, the Mayo Clinic says on its website.
The next stage of heat sickness is heat exhaustion. Symptoms include:
- cool, moist skin with goose bumps
- heavy sweating
- feeling faint or dizzy
- a weak, rapid pulse
- muscle cramps
- a headache
- low blood pressure when standing.
If you experience signs of heat exhaustion, it’s critically important to stop all activity, get to a cool and shady spot, and drink cold water or sports drinks. If symptoms don’t ease up after about an hour, or if they worsen, or if your temperature reaches 104 degrees, seek medical care. If heat exhaustion progresses to heat stroke, you need to get to a doctor right away; call 911.
Heat stroke is the most severe form of heat illness. According to the Mayo Clinic and the CDC, symptoms include:
- red, hot, dry skin — and no sweating
- difficulty speaking or understanding what others are saying
- throbbing headache
- muscle problems — cramps at first, followed by muscle weakness
- rapid, strong pulse
If you see someone suffering heat stroke, call 911 and then:
- Get the person to a cool, shady spot
- Cool the person down. Good options include placing ice packs on the neck and groin; spraying cool water on the person; using a fan.
Know your risks: Young children and people over 65 have a harder time regulating their body temperature, so the heat can hit them hardest. Certain medications — including beta blockers, diuretics and stimulants — also can increase the risk of heat sickness. So can some health conditions, including heart and lung diseases and being overweight.